hurricane andrew of 1992

College of the Mainland, Galveston College, and Texas A&M University at Galveston were also closed. [2] Advance warning was credited for the low death toll in the country. On the west coast of Florida, sustained winds remained just below tropical storm force on Marco Island, though a wind gust of 100 mph (160 km/h) was reported in Collier County. [29], Shortly after the storm emerged into the Gulf of Mexico from southern Florida, the National Hurricane Center issued hurricane watches and warnings for the Gulf Coast of the United States beginning at 13:00 UTC on August 24. Accelerating northeastward, the depression began merging with the approaching frontal system, and by midday on August 28, Andrew had lost its tropical identity while located over the southern Appalachian Mountains. Storm surge left coastal flooding in some areas, especially along state roads A1A and 858. The most damaging tornado was spawned in Elmore County and moved from an area northeast of Montgomery to the south of Wetumpka and briefly lifted during its 0.5 mi (0.80 km) track. [26] Damage in that county was about $131 million. [2] News reports indicated severe damage to 36 houses on Harbor Island. It was the strongest landfalling hurricane in decades and the costliest hurricane to make landfall anywhere in the United States, until it was surpassed by Katrina in 2005. [32], In Texas, about 250,000 people evacuated Orange and Jefferson counties. [106], In the aftermath of the storm, extensive psychological effects were documented. [110], Although proposals to rebuild Homestead Air Force Base were initially rejected,[61] the United States Department of Defense eventually expended over $100 million to begin repairs. Damage was heaviest in St. Mary Parish, about 32 mi (51 km) east of where Andrew made landfall. Hurricane Andrew was a powerful and destructive Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that struck the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana in August 1992. [54] Some officials in Florida considered Andrew the worst storm in the state since the Labor Day hurricane in 1935. Several counties in the northwest and west-central portions of the state reported downed trees and tree limbs and fallen power lines, causing scattered power outages, but structural damage was generally minor. [90][91] In early December, the Small Business Administration (SBA) approved $33.2 million worth of low-interest loans for repairs to homes and businesses. Hurricane Andrew was a Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that struck South Florida in August 1992. [136] House Resolution 5620 also included disaster aid to the state of Louisiana. [88], After assessing the devastation in Florida and Louisiana, U.S. President George H. W. Bush initially proposed a $7.1 billion aid package to provide disaster benefits, small-business loans, agricultural recovery, food stamps, and public housing for victims of Hurricane Andrew. [49] At the capital city of Nassau, sustained winds reached 92 mph (148 km/h), while gusts up to 115 mph (185 km/h) were reported. Over 80% of trees in the Atchafalaya River basin were downed, and the agriculture there was devastated. [24] In Dade County alone, 515,670 people were ordered to evacuate. University Press of Florida. It produced hurricane-force winds along its path through Louisiana, damaging large stretches of power lines that left about 230,000 people without electricity. [74] Strong winds also left at least 230,000 people without electricity. [74] Monetary losses in the state reached about $100,000. The hurricane developed from a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on August 14. [8] Andrew weakened rapidly as it turned to the north and northeast, falling to tropical storm intensity within 10 hours. The bill, which was the most costly disaster aid package at the time, was passed by Congress as House Resolution 5620 on September 18,[90] and signed into law by President Bush on September 23. Storm surge on the west coast was widespread but generally light, with a peak height of 6 ft (1.8 m) in Everglades City and Goodland. [82] Structural damage was generally minimal, occurring from the tornadoes and severe thunderstorms. [2] Convection became more organized as upper-level outflow became better established. Twenty-six schools were affected, with damage totaling $2.6 million. The early stages of the storm that would become Hurricane Andrew began on August 16, 1992, with a tropical wave moving from the west … NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center image. [85] Flooding was mostly limited to the inundation of minor roads and low-lying areas in several counties. Reports indicate that merchandise was stolen at damaged or destroyed shopping centers in southern Dade County. Then Andrew arrived, the most expensive natural disaster in … [2], Due to the hurricane's threat, workers fled oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, while the Coast Guard moved their boats inland. [91] The state of Florida alone received $9 billion through the disaster relief bill. [32] Shelters were opened in Hancock and Harrison counties, though only 68 people went to a shelter in the former. The season officially began on June 1, 1992, and lasted until November 30, 1992. [34] A mandatory evacuation from Grand Isle was ordered by Mayor Andy Valence and the city council. [68] Property damage reached about $100 million and three fatalities were reported in Broward County. Many residents evacuated, most voluntarily, from Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Lee, Martin, Dade, Monroe, Palm Beach, and Sarasota counties. [84], In Alabama, precipitation amounts in the state peaked at 4.71 in (120 mm) in Aliceville. [21] At a small village in the northwestern portion of the island, more than half of the houses were destroyed and the rest of the buildings sustained minor to major damage. [15], After the season had ended, the World Meteorological Organization's RA IV Hurricane Committee retired the name Andrew from the list of future names for Atlantic tropical cyclones and replaced it with Alex. [133] FEMA initially opened five field offices throughout Louisiana. At the time, Hurricane Andrew was the most expensive Atlantic hurricane in U.S. history (later surpassed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005). [83] Additionally, a possible tornado damaged a home and two trailers in Lawrence County. [2] Of the 44 deaths attributed to the storm, 15 were direct fatalities, while 29 were indirectly caused by the storm. [73] Before making landfall, Andrew spawned an F3 tornado in LaPlace, which killed two people and injured 32. In Dade County, Florida alone, Andrew’s fierce winds damaged or destroyed 125,000 homes, leaving at least 160,000 people homeless. [6] An eye formed, and Andrew attained hurricane status early on August 22, about 650 mi (1,050 km) east-southeast of Nassau, Bahamas. [77], While Andrew was entering the Gulf of Mexico, oil companies evacuated hundreds of employees from offshore drilling platforms. In total, Andrew left 65 dead and caused $27.3 billion in damage. Hurricane Andrew was a powerful and destructive Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that struck the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana in August 1992. Passing directly through the city of Homestead in Dade County (now known as Miami-Dade County), Andrew stripped many homes of all but their concrete foundations. Due to rapid reproduction and ability to prey on many species,[128] the population of Burmese pythons exploded, with possibly as many as 300,000 in the Everglades alone. Throughout the areas affected, almost 177,000 people were left homeless. [61] Nearby, in the small town of Florida City, over 120 homes were demolished and 700 others were damaged, while a number of other buildings were damaged beyond repair, including City Hall. [117], More than 930,000 policyholders in South Florida lost coverage after 11 insurance companies went bankrupt, caused by more than 600,000 insurance claims filed. This led the Florida Legislature to create new entities, such as the Joint Underwriting Association, the Florida Windstorm Underwriting Association, and the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund, in an effort to restore adequate insurance capacity. Despite the support of Bush's response and his proposal to rebuild Homestead Air Force Base, he benefited little politically and trailed 48–42% against Bill Clinton in another poll taken in September. [125] The county had a net loss of about 36,000 people in 1992, while Broward and Palm Beach counties gained about 17,000 and 2,300 Dade County residents, respectively. Hurricane Andrew formed from a tropical wave on August 16, 1992 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. [69] In addition to the damage at Everglades National Park, effects in Monroe County were significant, especially in the Upper Florida Keys. Unsalvageable buildings were demolished. Rainfall was generally light, possibly as a result of the storm's relatively fast movement. [2] Embedded within the deep easterlies, the depression tracked west-northwestward at 20 mph (32 km/h). 1992年のハリケーンシーズンの中で最初に命名されたハリケーンでもある 。. [111] Prior to Andrew, the base employed approximately 6,500 military personnel and 1,000 civilians and annually added about $450 million to the local economy. $25 billion (1992 USD) of … The meteorological history of Hurricane Andrew, the strongest tropical cyclone of the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season, lasted from mid to late August 1992. [124] The population growth was especially noticeable in southwestern Broward County, where land development was pushed "years ahead of schedule". Outside of the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana, effects were widespread, although damage was minimal. Next, the rebuilding of communications, medical, security facility, vehicle maintenance, and wing headquarters buildings began. Additionally, of the homes destroyed or severely damaged throughout Dade County, 36,000 had been restored by July 1994. The paper also indicated that Andrew briefly re-intensified into a Category 5 hurricane around the time of landfall in South Florida early on August 24. Hurricane Andrew was not the deadliest tropical cyclone to strike the U.S. mainland, but the compact, fast-moving storm remains one of the strongest and costliest on record. [2] A total of 800 houses were destroyed, leaving 1,700 people homeless. As many as 1.4 million people lost power at the height of the storm; some for more than one month. [15][16][17], Post-analysis on Andrew revealed that the storm was often stronger than operationally reported between early on August 22 and early on August 26. After the initial hurricane watch from Mobile, Alabama, to Sabine Pass, Texas, the watches and warnings were expanded to eventually include areas from Mobile, Alabama, to Freeport, Texas. Despite this, the Cleveland Indians, fearing the relocation of their more affluent fans, moved their spring training location to Chain of Lakes Park in Winter Haven. This caused the hurricane to decelerate to the northwest, and winds decreased as Andrew approached the Gulf Coast of the United States. [21] A total of 58 shelters were opened at churches, government buildings, and schools. Even today, Andrew ranks third in insurance claims payouts behind Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. [59], Tides were generally between 4 to 6 ft (1.2 to 1.8 m) above normal in the Biscayne Bay area, though near the Burger King International Headquarters, tides reached as high as 16.9 ft (5.2 m) above normal. Funnel clouds were observed near the path of the storm,[81] along with 26 tornadoes. It was the strongest landfalling hurricane in decades and the costliest hurricane to make landfall anywhere in the United States, until it was surpassed by Katrina in 2005. Strong winds from the storm were confined to a relatively small area, stretching from Key Largo to the Miami Beach area. Early in the morning on August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew made its first U.S. landfall along the eastern coast of the Florida Peninsula. Satellite pictures and upper-air data indicate that Hurricane Andrew formed from a tropical wavethat crossed from the west coast of Africa to the tropical North Atlantic Ocean on 14 August 1992. The hurricane inflicted around $25 billion in losses to the United States. [2] In Tennessee, thunderstorm winds and tornadoes associated with Andrew downed trees and power lines, but caused little overall impact to homes and buildings. The highest sustained wind speed for the storm was 146 mph (235 km/h), recorded at the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station, before instruments also failed there. Similarly, in North Carolina, thunderstorm winds toppled trees and power lines at a number of locations in the mountainous areas of the state, especially in Avery County. [37] The Comal County chapter of the Red Cross placed their disaster alert teams on standby and ready to respond if the hurricane threatened the Corpus Christi area. [50] Much of the northwestern Bahamas received damage,[49] with estimated monetary losses reaching $250 million. "[122], The hurricane also transformed the demographics of Dade County. The state National Guard also dispatched water purification units and tanks with filled potable water. [120] The Florida Building Code was established in 1998 and put into effect by 2002. Hurricane Andrew was a small and ferocious Cape Verde hurricane that wrought unprecedented economic devastation along a path through the northwestern Bahamas, southern Florida peninsula, and south-central Louisiana ( Rappaport 1993 ). Florida Hurricanes and Tropical Storms. [136], In early September, officials announced that 1,400 mobile homes, homes, and apartments would become available to residents whose dwellings became uninhabitable. [11], As the eye moved onshore in Florida, the convection in the eyewall strengthened due to increased convergence, and Hurricane Hunters reported a warmer eyewall temperature than two hours prior. The hurricane destroyed 90% of mobile homes in the county, including 99% of mobile homes in Homestead. [25] As Andrew was approaching, an estimated 20,000–30,000 tourists were in the Florida Keys (Monroe County). [38] School was canceled on August 25 for Beaumont, Port Arthur, and other areas of central Jefferson County,[37] while schools were closed in Dickinson, High Island, Hitchcock, La Marque, Santa Fe, and Texas City on August 26. Additionally, the bill allowed South Floridians to keep an estimated $500 million in sales tax generated by rebuilding efforts. The effects of Hurricane Andrew in Florida proved to be at the time the costliest disaster in the state's history, as well as the then-costliest on record in the United States.

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